APMTP, AIPMTP, orchard, 2008 Apple Survey - AZM Phase-out

Tree Fruit Research & Extension Center

Apple IPM Transition Project

Survey Results

2008 Apple Grower Survey

The 2008 Washington apple grower and manager pest management survey went out in February of 2009 to survey practices used during the 2008 crop season. Returns came in during July 2009. Out of nearly 1500 orchard owners and managers recieving surveys, about 27% choose to participate representing close to 78,000 acreas. Summary results of this survey were analyzed Fall of 2009 and are now available to view online.

Grower Survey Results
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D1: Before reading the statement about Guthion, were you aware that Guthion is going to be phased out?
 
  Frequency Percent
No 6 1.5
Yes 384 98.5
Total 390 100.0
Missing = 13
 
 
D2: According to the EPA's phase-out schedule, what will be the last year you can use Guthion?
 
Last year to use Frequency Percent
2009 12 3.2
2010 63 17.0
2011 47 12.7
2012 129 34.9
2013 2 0.6
Not sure 117 31.6
Total 370 100.0
Missing = 33

 
 
D3: Which of the following statements best reflects your approach to the Guthion phase-out in the apple orchard(s) you own or manage?

 

  Frequency Percent
I am in the process of reducing my use of Guthion. 245 65.0
I have already stopped using Guthion. 68 18.0
I have not yet reduced my use of Guthion. 53 14.1
I have never used Guthion, so the phase-out does not affect me. 5 1.3
Other 6 1.6
Total 377 100.0
Missing = 26

Other:
  • Fish oil - Surround
  • I'll use till phase out. Its low cost.
  • Only as a last resort. Problem sites.
  • Phase-out Guthion is a big mistake
  • Phase-out of Guthion has no proven replacement in
commercial large scale orchards!
  • We have morning and evening winds- in which moths
fly not much of a problem

 
 
D4: According to the EPA's phase-out schedule, which of the following statements best reflects growers' ability to use Guthion over the next several growing seasons?

 

  Frequency Percent
The phase-out schedule will limit the total amount of Guthion that can be used by a grower each year. 1 2.7
The phase-out schedule will limit the total number of Guthion applications that can be used by a grower each year. 12 32.4
The phase-out schedule will limit when Guthion can be used during the growing season. 1 2.7
All of the above 23 62.2
I'm not sure    
Total 37 100.0
Missing = 33
 
 
D5: How confident are you in your knowledge of how to use the following alternatives to Guthion to control codling moth?

 

Alternatives for Guthion Mean Scores * Missing
Pheromones
(mating disruption)
3.80 30
Assail (acetamiprid) 3.49 34
Delegate (spinetoram) 3.30 51
Horticultural spray oil 3.18 43
Intrepid (methoxyfenozide) 3.07 59
Altacor (rynaxypyr) 3.00 61
Entrust/Success (spinosad) 2.99 54
Rimon (novaluron) 2.97 55
Calypso (thiacloprid) 2.88 61
Esteem (pyriproxifen) 2.78 54
CM granulosis virus 2.41 66

* Mean scores: 1= "Not Confident", 5 = "Very Confident"

 
 
D6: What barriers do you face in using the alternatives to Guthion listed in the previous question (D5) to achieve acceptable codling moth control in the apple orchard(s) you own or manage? 
 
Barrier Frequency Percent
Alternatives are too expensive. 270 68.2
Alternatives are not as effective. 209 52.8
Alternatives cause other pest problems. 168 42.4
Export markets might not accept fruit with alternative insecticide residues. 117 29.5
The timing of alternatives is confusing. 105 26.5
There are too many alternatives to choose from. 48 12.1
Other 29 7.3
I do not face barriers in using the alternatives to Guthion. 55 13.9
Missing = 7

Other
  • All the checked boxes above are barriers, but none are strong enough barriers to block me from using
the new products.
  • Damage to fruit
  • Degree day models/monitoring (Defining/establishing correct timing)
  • Difficult to control high pressure populations
  • Frequency of applications
  • Kiss off most export markets won't tolerate moth stings!
  • Knowing what works in your orchard best
  • Lack of use, lack of knowledge
  • Lack the knowledge to be effective!
  • More spraying needed
  • MRLs are a big issue
  • Neighbors
  • Not knowledgeable about product
  • Not very familiar with usages
  • Outbreak of secondary pests
  • Overhead sprinklers
  • Programs target larvae, not adults
  • Residual control after each spray sometimes too short
  • Returns to grower are smaller and smaller.
  • There is no real replacement for Guthion
  • There is not enough information available on which pheromone traps to buy, how much they cost, how to
place them amongst trees, etc.
  • They don't work
  • Timing is critical
  • Timing issues
  • Too much CM pressure
  • Tracking resistance managing strategy
  • Use causes increase in red mites, more sprays, more exposure
  • Using Model-biofix and location
  • We have already phased out Guthion
  • We have to learn the alternatives are not used the same as Guthion
  • Worry about secondary pests that Guthion has been controlling for us that suddenly will explode on us
(?with) no Guthion. That is an unknown at this time.

 
 
D7: Which one of the barriers selected on the previous screen (D6) is the biggest obstacle to using alternatives to Guthion in the apple orchard(s) you own or manage?
 
Barrier Frequency Percent
Alternatives are too expensive. 108 31.1
Alternatives are not as effective. 97 28.0
Alternatives cause other pest problems. 28 8.1
The timing of alternatives is confusing. 24 6.9
Export markets might not accept fruit with alternative insecticide residues. 24 6.9
There are too many alternatives to choose from. 5 1.4
Other barrier(s) 9 2.6
I do not face barriers in using the alternatives to Guthion. 52 15.0
Total 347 100.0
Missing = 56

Other
  • Applying model
  • Confidence that alternatives work
as effectively
  • Cost of monitoring to know when
to spray which material.
  • Frequency of application and cost
  • More spraying!
  • Risk factor of using new unknown product.

 

 

D8: Please indicate the extent to which you disagree or agree with each of the following statements.
 
Statement Score 1 =
Strongly
Disagree
(%)
Score 2 =
Disagree
(%)
Score 3 =
Neither
Disagree
nor Agree
(%)
Score 4 =
Agree
(%)
Score 5 =
Strongly
Agree
(%)
Mean
Score
Non-responses
The cost of codling moth control will be higher after the Guthion phase-out 1.0 1.3 5.2 36.1 56.4 4.46 15
Growers will bear all the burden of the Guthion phase-out 2.6 7.9 17.9 29.2 42.3 4.01 13
Growers’ opinions were not considered when the EPA decided to phase out Guthion 2.0 11.0 22.2 30.1 34.7 3.84 11
I already have a system that works for training workers on pesticide safety and use. 1.3 2.8 24.6 54.4 16.8 3.83 17
WSU research has developed good information on alternatives to Guthion 2.0 4.6 27.8 41.6 24.0 3.81 11
Phasing out Guthion will make tree fruit production riskier for growers 3.1 14.3 22.7 32.4 27.6 3.67 11
The cost of leafroller control will be higher after the Guthion phase-out 4.8 11.7 25.8 26.8 30.9 3.67 11
Phasing out Guthion will encourage growers to use safer pesticides 5.4 9.7 23.0 45.7 16.3 3.58 11
Non-WSU research has developed good information on alternatives to Guthion 3.1 6.5 52.5 29.5 8.5 3.34 16
Growers have effective alternatives to Guthion at their disposal 8.4 18.8 23.9 38.1 10.9 3.24 9
Phasing out Guthion will require me to reorganize my orchard operations 5.4 24.5 25.8 31.9 12.5 3.22 11
Control of leafrollers will be more difficult after the Guthion phase-out 7.4 26.3 35.0 22.0 9.2 2.99 12
Phasing out Guthion will protect the health of agricultural workers 13.3 20.9 30.1 24.5 11.2 2.99 11
Phasing out Guthion will have a positive environmental impact 14.2 21.4 35.9 19.6 8.9 2.88 10
Phasing out Guthion will require significant retraining of agricultural workers 9.2 34.4 38.0 13.0 5.4 2.71 11
Phasing out Guthion will provide me with new apple marketing opportunities 16.3 25.8 47.7 8.2 2.0 2.54 11
Training workers to use alternatives to Guthion will be difficult for me to implement 12.1 42.2 38.0 5.1 2.6 2.44 14
Phasing out Guthion as soon as possible will be beneficial for my operation 26.3 30.1 31.4 8.9 3.3 2.33 11
It has been difficult for to train workers to use Guthion in my operation. 18.4 41.6 31.7 7.0 1.3 2.31 18
The training of workers on pesticide safety should be the responsibility of an outside organization rather than individual growers. 31.7 37.1 24.2 4.9 2.1 2.09 15
 

 

D10: Have problems with the following secondary pests over the last three years (2006-2008) in the apple orchard(s) you own or manage?
 
Secondary pest Not a problem
in 2006-2008
Decreased Same Increased Missing
Wooly apple aphid 58 (15.7%) 15 (4.1%) 134 (36.2%) 163 (44.1%) 33
Rosy apple aphid 55 (14.7%) 15 (4.0%) 190 (50.8%) 114 (30.5%) 29
Stink bug 87 (23.5%) 19 (5.1%) 183 (49.3%) 82 (22.1%) 32
Spider mite 90 (24.2%) 15 (4.0%) 203 (54.6%) 64 (17.2%) 31
Rust mites 79 (21.2%) 20 (5.4%) 211 (56.7%) 62 (16.7%) 31
Green aphid 60 (16.2%) 26 (7.0%) 231 (62.4%) 53 (14.3%) 33
Other 32 (31.7%) 2 (2.0%) 42 (41.6%) 25 (24.8%) 302

Other
  • Thrips (14)
  • Campylomma (4)
  • San Jose scale (4)
  • Leafrollers (2)
  • Pandemis leafroller (2)
  • Leafminers
  • Midge worm
  • Pende (Peach?) twig borer
  • Stink bug
  • Tent caterpiller

 

 

D11: Who is responsible for insect monitoring in the pest management program(s) for the apple orchard(s) you own or manage?
 
Person preforming monitoring Frequency Percent
Myself 282 71.6
Agricultural chemical distributor fieldman 278 a 70.6
Packing warehouse fieldman 120 30.5
Farm employee 88 22.3
Private consultant 33 8.4
Another grower or manager 24 b 6.1
Missing = 9

a Includes one marked as other and described as “Simplot”
b Includes three marked as others and described as “My brother farms fruit nearby and he helps,”
“Owners!” and “My dad”

 

D12: Which of the following are barriers to implementing or improving the insect monitoring program(s) in the apple orchard(s) you own or manage?
 
Insect monitoring barriers Frequency Percent
Lack of time 154 a 40.3
Cost of insect trapping and monitoring 108 b 28.3
Lack of trained staff to do monitoring 79 c 20.7
Lack of good monitoring methods or guidelines 46 d 12.0
Lack of value/applicability of monitoring results 36 e 9.4
Other barriers 2 0.5
I don’t have any barriers to implementing or improving insect monitoring 133 34.8
Missing = 21

a Includes one marked other and described as “Lack of time during busy times.”
b Includes two marked as other and described as “The price of apples” and “Lack of money”
c Includes one marked as other and described as “Field men to help with the program- warehouses have made
cuts in staff.”
d Includes four marked as other and described as “Training,” “More training,” “Lack of training available,” and
“Lack of available information on trapping and monitoring.”
e Includes three marked other and described as “Poor association bet/trap catch and pressure late in season,
3rd generation CM damage,” “Neighbors,” and “The orchards next door.”

 

Other
  • Need better pheromone line (?lure)
  • Weather

 

 

D13: How often do you calibrate your sprayer?
 
Sprayer calibration frequency Frequency Percent
Less than once a year 32 8.2
Once a year 190 48.8
Twice a year 66 17.0
Three or more times a year 96 24.7
I don't know 5 1.3
Total 389 100
Missing = 14
 

 

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