APMTP, AIPMTP, orchard, 2008 Apple Survey - Leafroller

Tree Fruit Research & Extension Center

Apple IPM Transition Project

Survey Results

2008 Apple Grower Survey

The 2008 Washington apple grower and manager pest management survey went out in February of 2009 to survey practices used during the 2008 crop season. Returns came in during July 2009. Out of nearly 1500 orchard owners and managers recieving surveys, about 27% choose to participate representing close to 78,000 acreas. Summary results of this survey were analyzed Fall of 2009 and are now available to view online.

Grower Survey Results
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C1: How frequently do leafrollers cause unacceptable crop damage in the apple orchard(s) you own or manage?
 
Frequency of crop damage Frequency Percent
Never 142 35.8
Less than 1 out of every 5 years 147 37.0
About 1 out of every 5 years 38  9.6
About 2 out of every 5 years 42 10.6
About 3 out of every 5 years 12 3.0
About 4 out of every 5 years 3 0.7
Every year 13 3.3
Total 397 100.0
Missing = 6

 

 
C2: If no controls were applied for leafroller this year, what level of crop injury would you expect by harvest? *
 
Level of leafroller injury Frequency Percent
Less than 1% 79 20.2
1-2% 57 14.6
3-5% 78 19.9
6-10% 72 18.4
More than 10% 106 26.9
Total 391 100.0
Missing = 12

 

 
C3a: During the 2008 growing season, did you use the OP insecticides as a control for leafroller?

 

OP Insecticide Frequency Percent Missing
Lorsban (chlorpyrifos) 229 58.9 14
Guthion (azinphos methyl) 114 29.4 15
Imidan (phosmet) 54 14.1 20
Diazinon 19 5.0 20

 

 
C3b: If you used the following OP insecticides as a control for leafrollers, please indicate the number of applications you used in 2008 (frequency with percent in parentheses).
 
Number of applications
Guthion Chloropyrifos Imidan Diazinon
1 application 32 (29.1%) 211
(94.2%)
38 (73.1%) 14 (82.4%)
2 applications 36 (32.7%) 13
(5.8%)
11 (21.2%) 3
(17.6%)
3 applications 32 (29.1%) 0 (0%) 2 (3.8%) 0 (0%)
4+ applications 10 (9.1%) 0 (0%) 1 (1.9%) 0 (0%)
Total 110 224 52 17
Skipped 274 160 329 364
Missing 19 19 22 22

 

 
C4: Did your use of OP insecticides (Guthion, Lorsban, Diazinon, and Imidan) for leafroller control over the past three years (2006-2008) change?
 
Change in OP use Frequency Percent
My use of OP insecticides for leafrooler control decreased over the past three years. 114 29.9
My use of OP insecticides for leafroller control remained about the same over the past three years. 210 55.1
My use of OP insecticides for leafroller control increased over the past three years. 10 2.6
I did not use OP insecticides over the past three years. 47 12.4
Total 381 100.0
Missing = 22

 

 
C5a: During the 2008 growing season, did you use the OP alternatives as a control for leafroller?
 
Insecticide
Frequency Percent Missing
Horticultural spray oil 253 64.9 13
Delegate (spinetoram) 210 54.3 16
Success (spinosad)¹ 193 49.9 16
Intrepid (methoxyfenozide) 173 44.8 17
Altacor (rynaxypyr) 105 27.7 24
Proclaim (emamectin benzoate) 90 23.5 20
Esteem (pyriproxifen) 86 22.9 27
Rimon (novaluron) 81 21.3 22
Entrust/Success (spinosad) ¹ 54 14.2 23
Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) 34 8.9 22
Pheromones (mating disruption)      
Other      
¹ Success was (unintentionally) listed twice as a choice for leafroller, once as Success and once as Success/Entrust
 

Other:
  • Warrior (2)
  • Assail (1)
  • Surround (1)

 
 
C5b: If you used the following OP alternatives as a control for leafroller, please indicate the number of applications you used in 2008 (frequency with percent in parentheses).
 
OP alternative Number of applications  
  1 2 3 4+ Total Skipped Missing
Horticulural spray oil 87 (53.7%) 39 (24.1%) 15 (9.2%) 21 (13.0%) 162 196 45
Delegate (spinetoram) 110 (75.9%) 34 (23.4%) 1 (0.7%) 0 (0%) 145 222 36
Success (spinosad) 111 (82.8%) 20 (14.9%) 3 (2.3%) 0 (0%) 134 232 37
Intrepid (methoxyfenozide) 104 (89.6%) 11 (9.5%) 1 (0.9%) 0 (0%) 116 251 36
Altacor (rynaxypyr) 43 (63.2%) 23 (33.8%) 2 (3.0%) 0 (0%) 68 303 32
Proclaim (emamectin benzoate) 57 (93.4%) 4 (6.6%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 61 301 41
Esteem (pyriproxifen) 45 (83.3%) 9 (16.7%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 54 315 34
Rimon (novaluron) 42 (76.4%) 12 (21.8%) 1 (1.8%) 0 (0%) 55 314 34
Entrust/Success (spinosad) 31 (72.1%) 7 (16.3%) 5 (11.6%) 0 (0%) 43 318 42
Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) 19 (73.1%) 6 (23.1%) 1 (3.8%) 0 (0%) 26 332 45
Pheromones (mating disruption) 25 (100%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 25 350 28
Other (see C5a) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 1 (100%) 0 (0%) 1 402 0

 
C6: Did your use of OP alternatives (listed in the previous question) for leafroller control decrease, remain about the same, or increase over the past three years (2006-2008)?
 
OP alternative use Frequency Percent
My use of OP alternatives for leafroller control decreased over the past three years. 47 12.2
My use of OP alternatives for leafroller control remained about the same over the past three years. 197 51.2
My use of OP alternatives for codling leafroller increased over the past three years. 96 24.9
I did not use OP alternatives for leafroller control over the past three years. 45 11.7
Total 385 100.0
Missing = 18
 
 
C7: Over the past three years did leafroller injury in the apple orchard(s) you own or manage decrease, remain about the same, or increase?
 
Change in leafroller injury Frequency Percent
leafroller injury decreased by more than 5% 52 13.6
leafroller injury decreased by 2-5% 48 12.5
leafroller injury remained about the same (± 0-2%) 262 68.2
leafroller injury increased by 2-5% 18 4.7
leafroller injury increased by more than 5% 4 1.0
Total 384 100.0
Missing = 19
 
 
C8: Over the past three years did the cost of leafroller control in the apple orchard(s) you own or manage decrease, remain about the same, or increase?
 
Change in cost of leafroller control Frequency Percent
The cost of leafroller control decreased by more than 10% 15 3.9
The cost of leafroller control decreased by 3-10% 14 3.7
The cost of leafroller control remained about the same (± 0-3%) 157 40.9
The cost of leafroller control increased by 3-10% 133 34.6
The cost of leafroller control increased by more than 10% 65 16.9
Total 384 100.0
Missing = 19
 
 
C9: How often did you use the following IPM practices as part of your management program for leafrollers?
 
IPM tactic Never Rarely Occasionally Often Missing
Field monitoring for damage 22 (5.8%) 21 (5.5%) 85 (22.4%) 252 (66.3%) 23
Resistance management strategies 129 (36.5%) 32 (9.1%) 62 (17.6%) 130 (36.8%) 50
Degree day models 130 (36.8%) 26 (7.4%) 69 (19.5%) 128 (36.3%) 50
Economic or treatment thresholds 144 (41.3%) 43 (12.3%) 79 (22.6%) 83 (23.8%) 54
Pheromone traps 214 (59.8%) 32 (8.9%) 31 (8.7%) 81 (22.6%) 45
Border sprays 222 (62.2%) 51 (14.3%) 51 (14.3%) 33 (9.2%) 46
Biological controls (parasites or predators) 245 (70.6%) 42 (12.1%) 29 (8.4%) 31 (8.9%) 56
Alternate row spraying 261 (74.4%) 50 (14.2%) 26 (7.4%) 14 (4.0%) 52
Reduced pesticide rates 242 (68.8%) 56 (15.9%) 40 (11.4%) 14 (4.0%) 51
Other 58 (95.1%) 2 (3.3%) 0 (0%) 1 (1.6%) 342

Other
• Not much control
• Material alternator
• Alternate row spraying (future)
• Surround
• Checked traps no problem

 
 
C10: Did your use of the IPM practices as a control for leafroller change?
 
IPM tactic Did not use Decreased Same Increased Missing
Field monitoring for damage 19 (5.2%) 11 (3.0%) 264 (71.9%) 73 (19.9%) 36
Resistance management strategies 83 (24.2%) 11 (3.0%) 181 (52.8%) 68 (19.8%) 60
Degree day models 90 (26.0%) 12 (3.5%) 184 (53.2%) 60 (17.3%) 57
Economic or treatment thresholds 90 (26.0%) 12 (3.5%) 204 (59.3%) 38 (11.0%) 59
Pheromone traps 130 (37.2%) 22 (6.3%) 168 (48.1%) 29 (8.3%) 54
Biological controls (parasites or predators) 164 (47.7%) 15 (4.4%) 148 (43.0%) 17 (4.9%) 59
Border sprays 140 (40.5%) 23 (6.6%) 168 (48.6%) 15 (4.3%) 57
Reduced pesticide rates 151 (43.9%) 25 (7.3%) 157 (45.6%) 11 (3.2%) 59
Alternate row spraying 168 (48.4%) 24 (6.9%) 149 (42.9%) 6 (1.7%) 56
Other 46 (53.5%) 6 (7.0%) 33 (38.4%) 1 (1.2%) 317

Other
• Surround
• Done with survey!! Survey is too
long!! Message to (name) and (name) –
Keep it short and simple. I’m sick of
farming tree fruits for no income!! I just
don’t care anymore!!
• For border sprays: Only with total area
sprays

 
 
C11: What percentage of the apple acres you own or manage do your answers to Questions C1 through C10 (questions about leafrollers) apply to?

 

Percentage of acreage Frequency Percent
1-10% 19 5.1
11-25% 8 2.1
26-50% 13 3.5
51-75% 20 5.4
76-99% 27 7.3
100% 285 76.6
Total 372 100.0
Missing = 31
 

 

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