APMTP, AIPMTP, orchard, 2008 Apple Survey - codling moth

Tree Fruit Research & Extension Center

Apple IPM Transition Project

Survey Results

2008 Apple Grower Survey

The 2008 Washington apple grower and manager pest management survey went out in February of 2009 to survey practices used during the 2008 crop season. Returns came in during July 2009. Out of nearly 1500 orchard owners and managers recieving surveys, about 27% choose to participate representing close to 78,000 acreas. Summary results of this survey were analyzed Fall of 2009 and are now available to view online.

Grower Survey Results
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B1: How frequently does codling moth cause unacceptable crop damage in the apple orchard(s) you own or manage?
 
Frequency of crop damage Frequency Percent
Never 97 24.9
Less than 1 out of every 5 years 93 23.9
About 1 out of every 5 years 43 11.1
About 2 out of every 5 years 58 14.9
About 3 out of every 5 years 19 4.9
About 4 out of every 5 years 12 3.1
Every year 67 17.2
Total 389 100.0
Missing = 14

 

 
B2: If no controls were applied for codling moth this year, what level of crop injury would you expect by harvest?
 
Level of crop injury Frequency Percent
Less than 1% 14 3.6
1-2% 15 3.9
3-5% 28 7.2
6-10% 42 10.9
More than 10% 287 74.4
Total 386 100.0
Missing = 1


 
B3a: During the 2008 growing season, did you use any OP insecticides as a control for codling moth?
 
OP Insecticide
Frequency Percent Missing
Guthion (azinphos methyl) 315 79.5 7
Imidan (phosmet) 99 25.1 8
Diazinon 26 6.6 9

 

 
B3b: If you used the following OP insecticides as a control for codling moth, please indicate the number of applications you used in 2008 (frequency with percent in parentheses).
 
Number of applications
Guthion Imidan Diazinon
1 application 55 (17.9%) 67 (69.8%) 18 (72%)
2 applications 113 (36.8%) 24 (25%) 4 (16%)
3 applications 110 (35.8%) 4 (4.2%) 3 (12%)
4+ applications 29 (9.5%) 1 (1%) 0 (0%)
Total 307 96 25
Skipped 81 296 368
Missing 15 11 10

 

 
B4: Did your use of OP insecticides (Guthion, Diazinon, and Imidan) for codling moth control over the past three years (2006-2008) change?
 
Change in OP use Frequency Percent
My use of OP insecticides for codling moth control decreased over the past three years. 194 49.5
My use of OP insecticides for codling moth control remained about the same over the past three years. 155 39.6
My use of OP insecticides for codling moth control increased over the past three years. 24 6.1
I did not use OP insecticides over the past three years. 19 4.8
Total 392 100.0
Missing = 11

 

 
B5a: During the 2008 growing season, did you use the OP alternatives as a control for codling moth?
 
Insecticide
Frequency Percent Missing
Pheromones (mating disruption) 253 64.9 13
Assail (acetamiprid) 210 54.3 16
Horticultural spray oil 193 49.9 16
Delegate (spinetoram) 173 44.8 17
Intrepid (methoxyfenozide) 105 27.7 24
Altacor (rynaxypyr) 90 23.5 20
Entrust/Success (spinosad) 86 22.9 27
Rimon (novaluron) 81 21.3 22
Esteem (pyriproxifen) 54 14.2 23
Calypso (thiacloprid) 34 8.9 22
CM granulosis virus 31 8.3 31
 

Other:
  • Warrior (4)
  • Surround (1)
  • Hand thinning (1)

 

 
B5b: If you used the following OP alternatives as a control for codling moth, please indicate the number of applications you used in 2008 (frequency with percent in parentheses).
 
[Data corresponds to left graph]
Number of applications Pheromones
(mating disruption)
Assail (acetamiprid) Horticultural spray oil Delegate (spinetoram) Intrepid (methoxyfenozide) Altacor (rynaxypyr)
1 220 (94%) 138 (68.6%) 111 (61.7%) 120 (71.9%) 91 (89.2% 64 (71.1%)
2 10 (4.3%) 55 (27.4%) 43 (23.9%) 42 (25.1%) 9 (8.8%) 23 (25.6%)
3 3 (1.3%) 7 (3.5%) 22 (12.2%) 4 (2.4%) 1 (1%) 2 (2.2%)
4+ 1 (0.4%) 1 (0.5%) 4 (2.2%) 1 (0.6%) 1 (1%) 1 (1.1%)
Total 234 201 180 167 102 90
Skipped 141 177 195 213 274 293
Missing 28 25 28 23 27 20
[Data corresponds to right graph]
Number of applications Entrust/Success (spinosad) Rimon (novaluron) Esteem (pyriproxifen) Calypso (thiacloprid) CM granulosis virus Other
1 65 (79.3%) 55 (72.4%) 43 (82.7%) 27 (84.4%) 22 (71%) 3 (37.5%)
2 11 (13.4%) 20 (26.3%) 7 (13.5%) 5 (15.6%) 7 (22.6%) 3 (37.5%)
3 4 (4.9%) 1 (1.3%) 1 (1.9%) 0 (0%) 2 (6.4%) 1 (12.5%)
4+ 2 (2.4%) 0 (0%) 1 (1.9%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 1 (12.5%)
Total 82 76 52 32 31 8
Skipped 290 300 326 347 341 394
Missing 31 27 25 24 31 1

 

 
B6: Did your use of OP alternatives (listed in the previous question) for codling moth control over the past three years (2006-2008) change?
 
OP alternative use Frequency Percent
My use of OP alternatives for codling moth control decreased over the past three years. 48 12.4
My use of OP alternatives for codling moth control remained about the same over the past three years. 141 36.4
My use of OP alternatives for codling moth control increased over the past three years. 180 46.5
I did not use OP alternatives for codling moth control over the past three years. 18 4.7
Total 387 100.0
Missing = 16
 
 
B7: Over the past three years did codling moth injury in the apple orchard(s) you own or manage decrease, remain about the same, or increase?
 
Change in CM injury Frequency Percent
Codling moth injury decreased by more than 5% 55 13.8
Codling moth injury decreased by 2-5% 49 12.3
Codling moth injury remained about the same (± 0-2%) 226 56.8
Codling moth injury increased by 2-5% 43 10.8
Codling moth injury increased by more than 5% 25 6.3
Total 398 100.0
Missing = 5

 

 
B8: Over the past three years did the cost of codling moth control in the apple orchard(s) you own or manage decrease, remain about the same, or increase?
 
Change in cost of CM control Frequency Percent
The cost of codling moth control decreased by more than 10% 4 1.0
The cost of codling moth control decreased by 3-10% 12 3.0
The cost of codling moth control remained about the same (± 0-3%) 80 20.1
The cost of codling moth control increased by 3-10% 170 42.6
The cost of codling moth control increased by more than 10% 133 33.3
Total 399 100.0
Missing = 4

 

 
B9: How many pheromone traps did you use per acre during the 2008 growing season?
 
Number of traps per acre Frequency Percent
1 trap per 2.5 acres or less 92 23.5
1 trap per 2.6-5 acres 99 25.3
1 trap per 5.1-10 acres 77 19.7
1 trap per 10.1 acres or more 54 13.8
I did not use pheromone traps during the 2008 growing season. 69 17.7
Total 391 100.0
Missing = 12

 

 
B10: How often did you use the IPM practices as part of your management program for codling moth? (frequency with percent in parentheses).
 
IPM tactic Never Rarely Occasionally Often Missing
Field monitoring for damage 9 (2.3%) 7 (1.8%) 59 (15.1%) 315 (80.8%) 13
Pheromone traps 64 (17.3%) 8 (2.2%) 35 (9.5%) 263 (71.1%) 33
Degree day models 47 (12.8%) 22 (6.0%) 58 (15.8%) 240 (65.4%) 36
Delayed distribution of bins in orchard 84 (23.1%) 32 (8.8%) 64 (17.6%) 184 (50.5%) 39
Resistance management strategies 83 (24.2%) 27 (7.9%) 60 (17.5%) 173 (42.9%) 60
Economic or treatment thresholds 116 (33.9%) 51 (14.9%) 72 (21.1%) 103 (30.1%) 61
Border sprays 99 (26.7%) 42 (11.3%) 133 (35.8%) 97 (26.1%) 32
Reduced pesticide rates 166 (47.4%) 71 (20.3%) 76 (18.9%) 37 (10.6%) 53
Biological controls (parasites or predators) 245 (70.2%) 41 (11.7%) 38 (10.9%) 25 (7.2%) 54
Alternate row spraying 220 (61.1%) 57 (15.8%) 60 (16.7%) 23 (6.4%) 43
Other 28 (70%) 1 (2.5%) 4 (10%) 7 (17.5%) 363

Other
• Mating disruption (4)
• Sprayable pheromone
• C.M. puffers in bin piles on site
• Checked traps no- count
• Strips (written comment next to
    pheromone traps)
• Remove stings
• Virus applications
• Summer oils
• Specific sections
• Pest Consultant
• Evening watering with overhead system,
   seemed to help for moth control
   and fruit color late in the season.

 

 
B11: Did your use of the IPM practices as a control for codling moth change?
 
IPM tactic Did not use Decreased Same Increased Missing
Resistance management strategies 75 (21.1%) 10 (2.8%) 159 (44.7%) 112 (31.5%) 47
Degree day models 44 (12.0%) 12 (3.3%) 213 (58.0%) 98 (26.7%) 36
Field monitoring for damage 11 (2.8%) 19 (4.9%) 254 (65.8%) 102 (26.4%) 17
Pheromone traps 44 (11.8%) 14 (3.8%) 221 (59.4%) 93 (25.0%) 31
Border sprays 89 (24.0%) 19 (5.1%) 189 (50.9%) 74 (19.9%) 32
Delayed distribution of bins in orchard 66 (17.9%) 6 (1.6%) 233 (63.3%) 63 (17.1%) 35
Economic or treatment thresholds 91 (26%) 12 (3.4%) 199 (56.9%) 48 (13.7%) 53
Reduced pesticide rates 134 (37.6%) 32 (9.0%) 161 (45.2%) 29 (8.1%) 47
Biological controls (parasites or predators) 187 (52.8%) 12 (3.4%) 133 (37.6%) 22 (6.2%) 49
Alternate row spraying 163 (44.5%) 27 (7.4%) 157 (42.9%) 19 (5.2%) 37
Other 28 (44.4%) 3 (4.8%) 26 (41.3%) 6 (9.5%) 340

Other
• Mating disruption (3)
• Sprayable pheromone
• C.M. puffers in bin piles on site
• Checked traps no- count
• Strips (written comment next to
    pheromone traps)
• Remove stings
• Virus applications
• Specific sections
• Used private consultants since 1992
• Evening irrigation
• Alternate row spraying (future)

 

 
B12: What percentage of the apple acres you own or manage do your answers to QuestionsB1 through B11 (questions about codling moth) apply to?
 
Percentage of acreage Frequency Percent
1-10% 12 3.1
11-25% 14 3.6
26-50% 11 2.8
51-75% 18 4.6
76-99% 38 9.7
100% 298 76.2
Total 391 100.0
Missing = 12

 

 

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