APMTP, AIPMTP, orchard, 2010 Apple Survey - AZM Phase-out

Tree Fruit Research & Extension Center

Apple IPM Transition Project

Survey Results

2010 Apple Grower Survey

The 2010 Washington apple grower and manager pest management survey went out in January of 2011 to survey practices used during the 2010 crop season. Out of 2,155 eligible participants recieving surveys, about 25% choose to participate. Those surveyed made pest management descisions on a mean of 235 acres of apples. Summary results of this survey were analyzed Fall of 2011 and are now available to view online or download here.

Grower Survey Results
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Note on data interpretation: Some data tables include a field for "missing". "Missing" indicates that respondents chose not to answer that particular question in its entirety. Some tables include the additional field, "skipped". "Skipped" data can occur on questions where an answer was not applicable for the respondent, given their response to the preceding question.
D1: Before reading the statement about Guthion, were you aware that Guthion is going to be phased out?
 
  Frequency Percent
No 8 1.5
Yes 528 98.5
Total 536 100
Missing = 10
 
 
D2: According to the EPA's phase-out schedule, what will be the last year you can use Guthion?
 
Last year to use Frequency Percent
2009 22 4.2
2010 20 3.8
2011 68 12.9
2012 284 53.8
2013 17 3.2
Not sure 117 22.2
Total 528 100
Missing = 18

 
 
D3: Which of the following statements best reflects your approach to the Guthion phase-out in the apple orchard(s) you own or manage?

 

  Frequency Percent
I am in the process of reducing my use of Guthion. 345 64.8
I have already stopped using Guthion. 130 24.4
I have not yet reduced my use of Guthion. 41 7.7
I have never used Guthion, so the phase-out does not affect me. 7 1.3
Other * 9 1.7
Total 532 100
Missing = 14

* Other:
  • I have mostly stopped but would still consider using in some situations (4);
  • Expect to discontinue;
  • Old product being used up;
  • Pheromones;
  • Tried to reduce but had to use – control not achieved;
  • We stopped using Guthion in 1989;
  • I will use it as long as possible as it is the most effective and the idiots at EPA are overeducated idiots.

 
 
D4: According to the EPA's phase-out schedule, which of the following statements best reflects growers' ability to use Guthion over the next several growing seasons?

 

  Frequency Percent
The phase-out schedule will limit the total amount of Guthion that can be used by a grower each year. 198 39.4
The phase-out schedule will limit the total number of Guthion applications that can be used by a grower each year. 25 5.0
The phase-out schedule will limit when Guthion can be used during the growing season. 10 2.0
All of the above 195 38.8
I'm not sure 74 14.7
Total 502 100
Missing = 44
 
 
D5: How confident are you in your knowledge of how to use the following alternatives to Guthion to control codling moth?

 

Alternatives for Guthion Mean Scores * Missing
Pheromones
(mating disruption)
3.96 33
Assail (acetamiprid) 3.56 40
Delegate (spinetoram) 3.55 49
Altacor (rynaxypyr) 3.44 60
Horticultural spray oil 3.30 54
Intrepid (methoxyfenozide) 3.12 63
Entrust/Success (spinosad) 3.00 72
Rimon (novaluron) 2.95 67
Esteem (pyriproxifen) 2.88 77
Calypso (thiacloprid) 2.87 73
CM granulosis virus 2.29 87

* Mean scores: 1= "Not Confident", 5 = "Very Confident"

 
 
D6: What barriers do you face in using the alternatives to Guthion listed in the previous question (D5) to achieve acceptable codling moth control in the apple orchard(s) you own or manage? 
 
Barrier Frequency Percent
Alternatives are too expensive. 353 65.2
Alternatives are not as effective. 287 53.0
Alternatives cause other pest problems. 228 42.1
Export markets might not accept fruit with alternative insecticide residues. 156 28.8
The timing of alternatives is confusing. 132 24.4
There are too many alternatives to choose from. 52 9.6
Other 28 5.2
I do not face barriers in using the alternatives to Guthion. 104 19.2
Missing = 5

Other

• Increased number of applications – added time and cost (8);
• Too short of control period (2);
• Timing of sprays are critical (2);
• Not as effective (2);
• Abandon trees backyard trees;
• Application window too small;
• Guthion has the best knock down for heavy pressure;
• Guthion only kills Codling Moth;
• Heavy insect damage;
• Late season codling moth control without using Guthion;
• Reduced calcium sprays;
• Sometimes overwhelming;
• The codling moth has to bite the apple to die so you lose an apple for every codling moth;
• There are no alternatives that kill adults;
• Very insect specific;
• Will alternatives stand the test of time like Guthion?
• When I have extreme pressure from outside my orchard borders the alternatives are not effective;
• Possible more sprays, if you have a flare up you may lose control and not be able to get it back;
• I can control codling moth with mate disruption and alternatives but with cost and other problems.

 
 
D7: Which one of the barriers selected on the previous screen (D6) is the biggest obstacle to using alternatives to Guthion in the apple orchard(s) you own or manage?
 
Barrier Frequency Percent
Alternatives are too expensive. 158 32.8
Alternatives are not as effective. 125 26.0
Alternatives cause other pest problems. 45 9.4
The timing of alternatives is confusing. 29 6.0
Export markets might not accept fruit with alternative insecticide residues. 23 4.8
There are too many alternatives to choose from. 6 1.2
Other barrier(s) 7 1.5
I do not face barriers in using the alternatives to Guthion. 88 18.3
Total 481 100
Missing = 65

Other
  • Added cost of more frequent spraying (4);
  • Put oil with them;
  • The government;
  • Late season codling moth control without
    using Guthion.

 

 

D8: Please indicate the extent to which you disagree or agree with each of the following statements.
 
Statement Score 1 =
Strongly
Disagree
(%)
Score 2 =
Disagree
(%)
Score 3 =
Neither
Disagree
nor Agree
(%)
Score 4 =
Agree
(%)
Score 5 =
Strongly
Agree
(%)
Mean
Score
Missing
The cost of codling moth control will be higher after the Guthion phase-out 0.8 1.9 6.4 34.3 56.6 4.44 16
Growers will bear all the burden of the Guthion phase-out 3.0 5.9 15.0 32.7 43.3 4.07 20
I already have a system that works for training workers on pesticide safety and use. 0.9 2.1 22.3 57.0 17.6 3.88 18
WSU research has developed good information on alternatives to Guthion 0.9 2.8 28.2 45.4 22.7 3.86 17
Growers’ opinions were not considered when the EPA decided to phase out Guthion 2.3 9..1 22.5 34.5 31.7 3.84 16
Control of codling moth will be more difficult after the Guthion phase-out 4.6 11.6 16.2 35.6 32.1 3.79 20
Phasing out Guthion will make tree fruit production riskier for growers 3.8 16.2 18.5 35.0 26.6 3.64 15
Phasing out Guthion will encourage growers to use safer pesticides 5.1 9.7 23.0 41.8 20.3 3.63 20
The cost of leafroller control will be higher after the Guthion phase-out 4.4 12.3 29.7 27.1 26.5 3.59 18
Non-WSU research has developed good information on alternatives to Guthion 3.0 4.5 52.9 31.0 8.5 3.37 17
Growers have effective alternatives to Guthion at their disposal 7.2 19.0 22.8 40.1 10.8 3.28 20
Phasing out Guthion will protect the health of agricultural workers 9.8 21.0 29.9 28.6 10.6 3.09 18
Phasing out Guthion will require me to reorganize my orchard operations 6.6 26.9 29.2 29.4 8.9 3.06 15
Control of leafrollers will be more difficult after the Guthion phase-out 7.8 25.5 31.1 24.4 11.5 3.06 22
Phasing out Guthion will have a positive environmental impact 11.8 19.8 38.6 20.2 9.7 2.96 20
Phasing out Guthion will require significant retraining of agricultural workers 9.9 34.3 37.8 13.1 4.9 2.69 19
Phasing out Guthion will provide me with new apple marketing opportunities 13.0 29.4 43.0 11.5 3.0 2.62 16
Training workers to use alternatives to Guthion will be difficult for me to implement 11.7 41.1 38.8 5.5 2.8 2.47 18
It has been difficult for to train workers to use Guthion in my operation. 14.3 43.6 36.2 3.8 2.1 2.36 21
Phasing out Guthion as soon as possible will be beneficial for my operation 23.0 34.9 31.7 6.6 3.8 2.33 16
The training of workers on pesticide safety should be the responsibility of an outside organization rather than individual growers. 31.2 39.0 20.8 5.1 3.8 2.11 21

Mean Score

Percent Responses

 

 

D10: Have problems with the following secondary pests over the last three years (2008-2010) in the apple orchard(s) you own or manage?
 
Secondary pest Not a problem
in 2008-2010
Decreased Same Increased Missing
Wooly apple aphid 73 (14.2%) 18 (3.5%) 197 (38.3%) 226 (44.0%) 32
Rosy apple aphid 63 (12.3%) 23 (4.5%) 230 (44.9%) 196 (38.3%) 34
Stink bug 97 (19.1%) 21 (4.1%) 249 (48.9%) 142 (27.9%) 37
Spider mite 107 (21.2%) 31 (6.1%) 257 (50.9%) 110 (21.9%) 41
Rust mites 117 (23.2%) 26 (5.1%) 278 (55.0%) 84 (16.6%) 41
Green aphid 69 (13.7%) 30 (6.0%) 332 (65.9%) 73 (14.5%) 42
Other 29 (32.6%) 1 (1.1%) 44 (49.4%) 15 (16.9%) 457

Other
  • Thrips (4)
  • San Jose scale (4)
  • Birds (3)
  • Campylomma (2)
  • European red mite (2)
  • OBLR
  • Earwigs
  • No problems

 

 

D11: Who is responsible for insect monitoring in the pest management program(s) for the apple orchard(s) you own or manage?
 
Person preforming monitoring Frequency Percent
Agricultural chemical distributor fieldman 395 73.0
Myself 365 67.5
Packing warehouse fieldman 152 28.1
Farm employee 123 22.7
Private consultant 46 8.5
Another grower or manager 13 2.4
Other * 9 1.7
Missing = 9

* Other
•  Family members (3)
•  All of the above (2)
•  In-house entomologist
•  North Valley Trapping
•  Orchard managers, contracted trap monitor service
•  I ask workers to inform me about any damage they detect in the orchard (mainly while hand thinning).

 

D12: Which of the following are barriers to implementing or improving the insect monitoring program(s) in the apple orchard(s) you own or manage?
 
Insect monitoring barriers Frequency Percent
Lack of time 172 31.8
Cost of insect trapping and monitoring 137 25.3
Lack of trained staff to do monitoring 88 16.3
Lack of good monitoring methods or guidelines 56 10.4
Lack of value/applicability of monitoring results 40 7.4
Other barriers 14 2.6
I don’t have any barriers to implementing or improving insect monitoring 230 42.5
Missing = 5

* Other
•  Cost, cost, cost (4)
•  Lack of experience on timing (3)
•  Time to analyze benefits, effectiveness and cost effectiveness of new products (2)
•  Learning curve/learning what works best
•  Occasional trap failure with economic damage occurring
•  Small blocks with outside pressure from neighbors
•  Too much paperwork during the season
•  Unaware of better methods or tools
•  Lazy
•  Field man never shows up at usual time if at all
•  I count on Bleyhls to stay on top of things for me

 

 

D13: How often do you calibrate your sprayer?
 
Sprayer calibration frequency Frequency Percent
Less than once a year 40 7.6
Once a year 248 47.1
Twice a year 102 19.4
Three or more times a year 133 25.2
I don't know 4 0.8
Total 527 100
Missing = 19
 

 

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